Catalogue

Attire

[ Intro – is being edited ]


1

Belt representing a double-headed snake

Belt representing double-headed snake

Type: attire
Subtype: belt
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth (hessian, blue and red cotton)
Bead colours: red, dark blue, light blue, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: two-headed snake, lizards, stylised frogs, leopard pattern
Cultural provenance:
Date:

The object, a broad belt in the shape of a double-headed snake, is fashioned from a long strip of hessian covered in red and blue cloth with a beaded decoration that is partly abstract – black and white triangles within a repeating frame of blue elongated lozenges, and partly figural – a pair of lizards and abstract frog-shapes.

These belts are used by the heads of chieftainships and their spouses during ceremonial dances, like the tso-dance of the Bamileke people. (Cf. Notué-Triaca 2005b, 203-204).

Snake

Many African cultures associate the snake with ambiguity and the pairing principle of which twins are a good example. Perrois and Notué describe the multi-faceted character of the snake in African, and more specifically Grassland, culture. The snake is primarily identified with the fundamental opposites of the world of the living versus the world of the dead, body versus spirit and vitality versus the occult (Perrois-Notué 1997, 117-119). In various African myths and folktales, the snake is associated with fertility, power (i.e. the power of the chief to render the land fertile), ancestors, magic, rainbows (as snakes often shelter near waterfalls), mist (for the same reason), nocturnal lights and the son of a god. Therefore, the snake is the object of both fear and veneration. Often a snake is kept in a secret secluded place near the compound of a chief.

The fundamental ambiguity and double-sidedness of the snake are represented in this belt by its having two heads; one on each end. The representation of the snake is stylised but can be easily recognised.

The black and white triangle pattern that runs along portions of the belt refers to the leopard, which is a symbolic reference to the chief. Leopard-man societies are also associated with fertility and fertility rites. The combination of snake and leopard in one object, therefore, stresses this meaning. Beaded objects with iconographic references to the leopard and snake are traditionally exclusively reserved for the chief (Perrois – Notué 1997, 120-121).

Lizard

The lizards are drawn in beads as white outlines with coloured volumes. The head is red with a blue body.

Lizards are a recurring symbol in Grasslands art. They are associated with life, rain, rainbows, twins and the cult of royalty. Lizards are also considered to protect against sorcerers (Notué, Triaca 2006, 54). In the Bamum kingdom, lizards are said to refer to royal princes.

Frog

The frogs are rendered in a minimalistic and linear style, executed in dark blue. The frog is a common symbol of fertility.


2

Ceremonial attire representing a leopard’s pelt

Ceremonial attire representing a leopard’s pelt

Type: attire
Subtype: pelt
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells, animal hair
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: leopard skin, abstract leopard pattern
Cultural provenance:
Date:

The object, a ceremonial attire belonging to a chief, represents a leopard’s pelt. The shape mimics a pelt with cut-off claws. The tail is made with the hair or tail a real animal. The inner surfaces of the pelt are filled with patterns, mostly lozenges, and chevrons. The figures are executed in white, red, and black beads. These patterns refer to the spot pattern of the leopard and the zigzag of the lizard, both referring to a royal owner.

The shape of the pelt is defined by a red cloth contour which is accentuated with cowrie shells and clear blue tubular beads.

In general, pelts are worn by the king or queen as ceremonial attire during festivals and official sessions. It may also be used as an adornment worn during celebratory dances (Notué-Triaca 2005b, 206). Owning a leopard’s pelt was a royal privilege in Grasslands society and so is owning, wearing or displaying its beaded counterpart.

This garment is highly symbolic. It denotes royal power and prestige. By the presence of its sheer quantity of beads, it also refers to the wealth of its owner and, by the same token, of his subjects.



Calabashes

Throughout Africa, calabashes are used for a variety of purposes. In most cultures, they abound as mundane household objects. In the Cameroon Grasslands, however, the calabash is often transformed and elevated to the level of prestige or elite objects by covering it with a lavish decorative layer of beads.

Calabashes are dried fruits or gourds from the bottle gourd plant (Lagenaria siceraria). They have a strong wall and can easily be hollowed out. People store a wide range of liquids in them, from palm wine to substances used for religious purposes or traditional medicine. Raymond Lecoq writes in his study on the Bamileke people that the beaded long neck gourd or N’tu M’ba Koko is reserved for a chief and may contain raffia palm wine (from the Raphia hookeri) or M’lu. According to local custom, this wine has fertility-giving properties (Lecoq 1953, 171). However, Michael Oehrl (2016) notes that in 1951 Pierre Harter, while visiting the Bamileke area, only found empty calabashes which could not be used as palm wine container because the necks were not watertight. 

Calabashes come in many shapes. Some are cultivated with a long stem, much like the neck of a bottle. This shape has become archetypal for the decorated calabashes seen in use in Cameroon and exhibited in collections all over the world. The neck of the calabash may be equipped with a stopper.

In addition to their practical use, calabashes are often used in ceremonial contexts. At important events, like seasonal festivals and public appearances of the chief, elaborately beaded calabashes are presented as symbols of power and prestige. Within the chieftainships and kingdoms of the Grasslands, numerous secret societies use them as ritual paraphernalia during important ceremonies. For example, the komngang society used a calabash during enthronement ceremonies and funerals of Mankon kings. For this purpose, it contained ritual medicine (Notué & Triaca 2005, 165).

On beaded calabashes, the stoppers are often imaginatively decorated with beads. These decorations may be abstract or figural. Among the figural elements, we encounter masks, heads and animals. These stoppers often resemble the decorated grips of whisks. Stoppers decorated with representations of animals may represent the totem of a chief or group (Lecoq, loc. cit.).

Sometimes, calabashes contain the mortal remains of important ancestors. It has been reported that cranial bones of dead leaders were put in calabashes to preserve their force or vital essence for the benefit of the group (Lecoq, loc. cit.). In this respect, they perform the same function as ancestor figures, which makes that beaded calabashes are considered highly symbolic objects. It has also been observed that these calabashes were posed on thrones or other prestigious supports (Leuzinger 1976, 236). The bowls supporting reliquary calabashes are often seen as spirit containers in themselves and are used to present sacrifices and gifts to the powers that reside in them (Rudy 1972, 131). These supporting bowls can be part of a larger ensemble, such as a sculpture.


3

Calabash with non-figural stopper

Calabash with non-figural stopper

Type: container
Subtype: calabash
Local name: ntù
Dimensions:
Materials: bottle gourd, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: spider pattern
Cultural provenance:
Date:

The object is a long-necked calabash with an integrated tubular stand. Large parts of the calabash, such as the base and neck, are monochromatic (red).

The arrangement of tubular beads in these areas creates a chequered effect. The body of the calabash consists of lozenges of red tubular beads with fields of alternating black and white beads.

The central pattern may refer to the spider, the emblematic animal associated with wisdom, prescience, divination and the interpretation of the signs transmitted by ancestors and dreams. The stopper is covered with red tubular beads and has no figural elements.


4

Calabash with elephant stopper

Image of a calabash from Cameroon with an elephant-shaped stopper
Calabash with elephant stopper

Type: container
Subtype: calabash
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: bottle gourd, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, brown, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: stopper: elephant; neck: leopard pattern
Cultural provenance:
Date:

The object is a long-necked calabash with a narrow tubular stand. The body and base are predominantly a monochromatic red with blue and white patches. The arrangement of tubular beads in these areas creates a chequered effect.

The pattern on the neck, consisting of rotated black and white triangles, refers to the leopard, the symbolic animal associated with the power of the sovereign or chief.

The figural stopper represents an elephant, executed in brown, white and black spherical beads. The ears of the elephant are covered with a chequered pattern, while the back and legs are decorated with bands of black and white triangles.


5

Calabash with chameleon stopper

Calabash with chameleon stopper

Type: container
Subtype: calabash
Local name: ntù
Dimensions:
Materials: bottle gourd, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue
Bead shapes: tubular
Representation: stopper: chameleon
Cultural provenance:
Date:

The object is a long-necked calabash with a tubular stand. The body is predominantly a monochromatic red.

The arrangement of tubular beads on the neck of the container creates a chequered effect. The body and stand of the receptacle are filled with monochromatic red beads. These tubular beads follow the shape and natural curve of the object.

The zoomorphic figural stopper represents an animal with a curled tail, which suggests a chameleon, executed in red and dark blue with cowrie shells for eyes.


6

Calabash with anthropomorphic stopper

Calabash from the Cameroon Grasslands with anthropomorphic stopper
Calabash with anthropomorphic stopper

Type: container
Subtype: calabash
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: bottle gourd, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular
Representation: stopper: chameleon
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Descr. follows ]



Headdresses

Headdresses are in many respects similar to helmet masks. They are often decorated with the same iconographical patterns and adorned with crest figures. They differ in one important aspect. Where a helmet mask has the purpose to hide the identity of the masquerader, changing him into another being, the headdress is intended to enhance the personality of the wearer and confirm his or her identity. Far from being simply an item of clothing, the headdress is a semaphore, it sends out a clear message about the place of the owner in society, his or her status and allegiance.

As the headdress is not made to hide the identity of the owner, it will often have the shape that snugly fits the head of the wearer, like a hemisphere or a hollow cylinder. On top of this basic element there may be elaborate constructions, often consisting of several layers. The crowning element often is a zoomorphic crest figure or a group of zoomorphic elements.

Like other beaded objects, the surface is often decorated with abstract geometrical patterns or patterns that refer to symbolic animals. Cowrie shells and other elements may be part of the ensemble.

If the iconography of the animal figures that decorate the headdress refers to a chief, king or prince, like the leopard, or lizard, then it would be rightfully described as a crown.

Headdresses are often used by customary law societies in commemorative ceremonies in honour of defunct kings.



7

Headdress with zoomorphic figure

Headdress with zoomorphic figure

Type: headdress
Subtype: figural headdress
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: ornament: leopard
Cultural provenance:
Date:

This headdress is surmounted by a leopard. There are three levels, a tubular cap, surmounted by a complex cushion-shaped layer, which may represent a rock on which the animal stands on four legs.

The cap is a basic cylinder covered in beads with subdued colours, mainly black with a white lozenge pattern and triangles along the inferior rim. There are very subtle red and blue accents.

The cushion-shaped base is a complex construction with thick strands of beaded material form interlinked x-shaped crosses. The main colour is deep blue with white accents. A scattered application of cowrie shells provides additional highlights.

The animal has a cartoonish anthropomorphic head with a drop-like nose. Its colour is a chequered blue-white pattern, except for the nose, which is red. Accents of red define the ears and eyes of the creature that seems to hold onto the base with its hands. In this regard, it shows some similarity with a chameleon or a lizard. It has a long tail that extends below the lower rim of the headdress. As a symbol, the leopard refers to the chief or king and to the power he exerts on his subjects. The checkered pattern is a simplification of the usual triangular leopard-pattern.


8

Headdress with zoomorphic figures

Headdress with zoo-anthropomorphic heads

Type: headdress
Subtype: figural headdress
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: zoomorphic:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


9

Headdress with zoomorphic figures

Headdress with zoomorphic figures

Type: headdress
Subtype: figural headdress
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


10

Headdress with double-headed zoomorphic figure

Headdress with double-headed zoomorphic figure

Type: headdress
Subtype: figural headdress
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


11

Headdress with zoomorphic figures

Headdress with double-headed elephant and dogs ??

Type: headdress
Subtype: figural headdress
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: ornament: double-headed elephant, dogs ??
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]



Masks

The stock and trade of African traditional art, masks have a central place in Grasslands culture. Masks are never simple attributes in a theatrical performance with dancers playing a role, dancing to the rhythms of the music. They are part of a much larger mechanism. The presence of supernatural beings during masked performances is as real to the spectator as the transubstantiation is to worshippers in the Roman Catholic church. During the masquerade, the personality of the performer is temporarily subdued to allow the otherworldly being to be present among the people attending the festivity. In most cases, the dancers make a dramatic appearance as if the spirits incorporating the masks have found their way to the celebration on their own accord.

These dances are predominantly prepared and performed by members of customary law societies and only reveal part of the secret knowledge that is only known by the initiates of these societies. To know the religious secrets of these societies to the full it is necessary to undergo the initiation rites which also mark the passage of young people, mostly men, to adulthood. Sometimes initiation is a privilege which is only shared with the elite of a group, or available at an elevated price.

Specific masks are part of the pantheon of specific secret societies. The privilege to create, keep and use masks is part of a long tradition. Different secret societies perform dances and rituals at specific occasions that are strictly defined and delineated.

The iconography of masks in the Cameroon Grasslands extends the iconography of other art forms. We encounter masks representing members of the animal kingdom, often symbolically linked to the forces of nature or the power of the chief, while anthropomorphic masks may refer to generic characters or specific people, like ancestors.

What these masks have in common is their role as being temporarily charged with the being they represent, like electricity. Once they are put away in their safe hiding places they are switched off and become inanimate objects again. This process is well-known in most western and non-western religions. A mask, therefore, does not simply hide the identity of the masker but in a sense replaces it with the character it embodies.

There are several types of masks. Face masks cover the face while the masker is able to see and breathe through holes punctured in the surface. The eyes of the mask don’t necessary have to coincide with the eyes of the masquerader. Sometimes the performer uses the mouth to keep an eye on his direct surroundings.

Helmet masks are placed on the head of the masquerader. Mostly slightly tilted on the forehead. Many animal masks, such as masks representing elephants, buffalos and antelopes are made as helmet masks. This allows tusks, horns and trunks to protrude in front of and behind the dancer without losing freedom of movement. The identity of the dancers is mostly hidden by a collar of cloth or natural fibres, like raffia.

Crest masks are related to helmet masks in the sense that they hide the masquerader under a robe of cloth or fibres. Where regular masks sometimes have small figural elements attached on the top, crest masks have no substructure. The mask crests themselves are predominantly figural. They may display the usual mythic animals like lizards, elephants and chameleons, or they may display anthropomorphic figures, usually small heads. These heads are sometimes shaped like the grinning severed heads of skulls that may refer to trophies taken after a battle. Janus-heads are also common. It is suggested that these heads refer to the ancestor-cults (cf. Lecoq 1953, 135).

Often These figures are often displayed with the support that was placed on the head of the masquerader. Most mask crest figures have lost the robe or cape of fibres that hid the dancer.



12

Anthropomorphic mask

Anthropomorphic helmet mask

Type: ceremonial
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cord, cloth
Bead colours: red, yellow, green, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


13

Anthropomorphic mask

Anthropomorphic helmet mask

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


14

Anthropomorphic mask

Anthropomorphic helmet mask with zoomorphic crest figures

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cord, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic with zoomorphic crest figures
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


15

Zoomorphic mask

Zoomorphic helmet mask

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, ultramarine blue, turquoise, brown, green, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: chimpanzee head surmounted by two lizards or chameleons
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


16

Zoomorphic mask

Zoomorphic helmet mask

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: chimpanzee ??
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]

17

Zoomorphic mask

Zoomorphic helmet mask

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: chimpanzee ??
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


18

Anthropomorphic helmet mask

Anthropomorphic helmet mask

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cord, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, orange, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: human head
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


19

Anthropomorphic helmet mask

Anthropomorphic helmet mask

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: human head
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


20

Helmet mask, elephant

Zoomorphic helmet mask: elephant

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: elephant
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


21

Balaclava mask, elephant

Zoomorphic balaclava mask: elephant

Type: mask
Subtype: balaclava elephant mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, hessian, black and red cloth
Bead colours: white
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: elephant
Cultural provenance: Bamileke
Date:

[ Description prepared – follows ]


22

Zoomorphic mask

Zoomorphic helmet mask: buffalo

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: white, red, blue, black
Bead shapes: spherical, tubular
Representation: zoomorphic: buffalo
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


23

Zoomorphic mask

Zoomorphic helmet mask: buffalo

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: buffalo
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description follows ]


24

Anthropomorphic mask, Tu Nkum Mpelet

Anthropomorphic helmet mask. Tu Nkum Mpelet

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name: Tu Nkum Mpelet
Dimensions: 60 x ? x ? cm
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic, face with a beard, large beaded ears and a headdress beaded with cowrie shells, with three red beaded circles and a pointed arch
Cultural provenance: Bamum
Date: second half of the 19th century

This mask, which is one of the highlights of the Spectandum-collection, is named “Tu Nkum Mpelet”, and a clear example of the classical Bamum style of mask sculpture. The helmet mask represents a male figure. It has clearly delineated and open features based on strong sculpted volumes. The face is covered with a thin brass sheet. The ears and eyes are defined by coloured beads, following the contours and filling in the main surfaces.

The outer contours of the ears, face as well as the regal beard, are outlined with parallel bands of cowrie shells. The regal ceremonial headdress, a large convex oval shape reminding of a bishop’s mitre, is covered with cowrie shells, except for a symmetrical motive of three circles and an upward-pointing chevron, which are executed in tubular beads.

The shape is simple, forceful and iconic, an effect enhanced by the white contours. The colour scheme of the beads is muted and limited. Only dark blue, dark red and white beads are used, reinforcing the solemn expression of the mask.

As it appears on a photograph taken by Rudolph Oldenburg in 1912, we know that it was in already use in the early 20th century. The mask probably dates from the late 19th century. It was used during celebrations of the wealth of Bamum kings, the “Nja-festival”. Given the regal appearance with beard and headdress, the mask probably represented an important figure in the hierarchy of Bamum society, such as the king. Being a helmet mask, this balanced figure would have towered above the dancer and must have made a powerful impression.


25

Zoomorphic mask

Zoomorphic helmet mask: buffalo

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: buffalo
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description… ]

26

Anthropomorphic mask

Anthropomorphic helmet mask

Type: mask
Subtype: helmet mask
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, white, blue, orange, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description… ]



Crest-figures

Figural elements on top of crest masks are often anthropomorphic, representing heads. These crest figures have probably originated in the cultural environment of the Cross River where such heads, often covered with animal skin, represented slain enemies. In the Cross River and Widekum cultures, crest figures are frequently small statuettes, with or without legs (Cf. Perrois-Notué 1997, 224). They represent the dead and are therefore grotesque and fearsome. Since these figures are placed on top of the heads of the performers, the dancers wearing these objects appear to the audience as larger than life-size, giving them an eerie and supernatural look.

Most of the beaded crest figures in the Grasslands are heads without a body. They are mostly caricatures with exaggerated features, fixed in a grimace or they have wide-open mouths as if they are screaming, revealing awe-inspiring teeth. The eyes of these figures may be protruding and well-delineated, amplifying the association with skulls, death and slain enemies. Cowrie shells are frequently used for teeth, eyes and hair decoration, similar to regular masks and statuettes.

The crest figures may themselves have a smaller crest figure attached to the top of its head. Often these are zoomorphic figures, adding an extra element to the iconographic significance of the object.

Zoomorphic crest figures may also come as single figures or with smaller crest figures attached to the top. Literature about this type of object outside the Cross River area is scarce.


27

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cord
Bead colours: red, blue, green, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ DESCRIPTION IS BEING CHECKED ]


28

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, green, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[TEXT IS BEING CHECKED]


29

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure, Janus-head

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, metal sheet foil
Bead colours: red, blue, black
Bead shapes: tubular
Representation: anthropomorphic: Janus-head
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[TEXT IS BEING CHECKED]


30

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


31

Anthropomorphic crest figure / trophy head ??

Anthropomorphic crest figure / Atwonzen ??

Type: trophy head / or mask ??
Subtype: crest figure / or Atwonzen ??
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


32

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Antyropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, clear green, cord, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, clear blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[DESCR.]


33

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


34

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: crest figure
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


35

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, fibre, cloth
Bead colours: red, clear blue, yellow, ochre, light brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Descr.]


36

Zoomorphic crest figure

Zoomorphic crest figure

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Descr.]


37

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Descr.]


38

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


39

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, yellow, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


40

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure with double Janus-head

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cord, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: double Janus-head
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ DESCRIPTION IN PROCESS ]


41

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure with chameleon

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic and zoomorphic: chameleon
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Descr.]


42

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure, Janus-head with double-headed chameleon

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: Janus-head; and zoomorphic: double-headed chameleon
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Descr.]


43

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Anthropomorphic crest figure

Type: mask (part of)
Subtype: crest figure
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, yellow, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: ornament:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]



Trophy heads

[ Intro wordt geschreven ]


44

Anthropomorphic trophy head

Anthropomorphic trophy head. Atwonzen ??

Type:
Subtype:
Local name: [[Atwonzen??]]
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: brown, red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic head
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description prepared – being edited and checked ]


45

Anthropomorphic trophy head

Anthropomorphic trophy head. Atwonzen ??

Type:
Subtype:
Local name: Atwonzen ??
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: brown, red, dark blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[ Description… ]


46

Anthropomorphic trophy Janus-head

Anthropomorphic trophy Janus-head

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


47

Anthropomorphic trophy head

Anthropomorphic trophy head

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


48

Anthropomorphic trophy head

Anthropomorphic trophy head

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, black
Bead shapes: tubular
Representation: anthropomorphic
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]





Skulls

[ Intro wordt gecheckt ]


49

Human skull

Human skull

Type: trophy object
Subtype: skull
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: skull, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, yellow, ochre, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


50

Zoomorphic skull / mask ??

Zoomorphic skull / mask ?? : baboon

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: baboon
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


51

Zoomorphic skull / mask ??

Zoomorphic skull / mask ?? : baboon

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, green, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: baboon
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


52

Zoomorphic skull / mask ??

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, clear blue, green, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: baboon?
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Uitwerken: bright green beads indicate a date after 1975 (Republic of Cameroon adopted its national flag).]


53

Zoomorphic skull / mask ??

Zoomorphic skull / mask ??

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cord, cloth
Bead colours: red, clear blue, white, black
Bead shapes: spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: primate
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


54

Zoomorphic skull / mask ??

Zoomorphic skull / mask ??

Type:
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, clear blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: zoomorphic: antelope?
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]



Statuettes

[ Intro geschreven – wordt gecheckt ]


55

Male standing figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing male figure
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


56

Male standing royal figure

Type: statuette
Subtype: commemorative effigy
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, green, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing male figure
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


57

Male standing royal figure

Statuette, representing a king or chief, Bamum

Type: statuette
Subtype: commemorative effigy
Local name:
Dimensions: 35x14x12 cm
Materials: wood, sheet metal (brass), glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, black
Bead shapes: tubular
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing male figure, probably a chief or king
Cultural provenance: Bamum
Date: late 19th – early 20h century

This commemorative standing figure probably represents a Bamum king. Its characteristic properties are a prominent headdress, resembling a bishop’s mitre, which is commonly associated with a king; a prominent abdomen, which denotes affluence, both for the king himself as for his kingdom; both hands brought to the chin, which denotes wisdom.

The face, hands and feet are covered with a thin brass sheet or foil, which is not uncommon for masks, crest figures and statuettes.

The statuette is covered with relatively large tubular beads of a type produced in the 18th and 19th century, using a limited palette of only three colours, red, blue and black. The beads have a rich patina. The beadwork divides the surfaces of the statuette in coloured fields of blue and black beads, delineated and accentuated with red beads.

There is not enough information to identify the person being represented.


58

Anthropomorphic standing figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing figure with hands on upper legs or knees
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


59

Female standing figure

Seated female figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, brass sheet, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, clear blue, yellow, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: female figure seated on stool, with hands folded in front of chest
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


60

Male standing figure

Male standing figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth,
Bead colours: red, blue, clear blue, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing male figure with hands on protruding belly
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


61

Male standing figure

Male standing figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cord, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing male figure with hands at slightly protruding belly
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


62

Female seated figure with bowl

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: seated female figure, with bowl on left knee, on stool
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


63

Male seated figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cord, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, brown, white
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: seated male figure on stool
Function: ceremonial
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


64

Female standing figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, fibre
Bead colours: red, bright red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing female figure with both hands supporting protruding belly
Function:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


65

Female standing figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: female standing figure supporting a protruding belly with both hands
Function:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


66

Male standing figure with drinking horn

Male standing/seated figure with drinking horn

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, clear blue, brown, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: male standing or seated figure with left hand hand at chin and drinking horn in right hand
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


67

Female seated figure

Female seated or crouched figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, clear blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: seated or crouched female figure with both hands at protruding belly
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


68

Female seated figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth, cowrie shells
Bead colours: red, turquoise, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: seated female figure with hands on knees
Function:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


69

Male standing figure with two calabashes

Male standing figure with two calabashes

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: crouching male figure with two calabashes on both knees
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


70

Female standing figure with two calabashes

Female standing figure with two calabashes

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing (crouching) female figure with calabashes on both knees
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


71

Male standing figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, clear blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing (crouching) male figure with hands on knees
Function:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


72

Female standing figure

Female standing (crouching) figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing (crouching) female figure with hands on knees
Function:
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


73

Male seated figure with bowl and drinking horn

Male seated figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: red, blue, white, black
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: seated male figure with bowl and drinking horn
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


74

Male standing figure with zoomorphic crest figure

Male standing figure with crest figure

Type: statuette
Subtype:
Local name:
Dimensions:
Materials: wood, glass beads, thread, cloth
Bead colours: dark brown
Bead shapes: tubular, spherical
Representation: anthropomorphic: standing male figure with hands above protruding belly; zoomorphic crest figure
Cultural provenance:
Date:

[Description…]


75

Female standing figure